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Nuclear disaster scale

sources, operations at nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive material. Events are classified on the scale at seven levels: Levels 1-3 are called incidents and Levels 4-7 accidents. The scale is designed so that the severity of an event is about ten times greater for each increase in level on the scale. Events without safet International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) is a tool for communicating the safety significance of nuclear and radiological events to the public. Member States use INES on a voluntary basis to rate and communicate events that occur within their territory Types of Nuclear Accidents: INES Scale - International Scale of Nuclear Events Serious Accident - Level 7 of the INES Scale. Level 7 of the INES scale is the maximum level at which an event can be... Major Accident - Level 6 of the INES Scale. In the case of a level 6 accident on the INES scale, a.

  1. Nuclear Disaster International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale 1 2 7 6 5 4 0 3 Deviation •No safety significance Anomaly •Exposure over annual permissible dose Incident •Exposure of a member of the public in excess of 10 mSv/Exposure of a worker in excess of the statutory annual limits Serious inciden
  2. Nuclear Disaster Scale Free PDF eBooks. Posted on November 05, 2015. The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) (PDF) significance are called deviations and are classified Below Scale / Level 0. INES. The inTernaTional nuclear and radiological evenT scale. OECD. Nuclear.
  3. ated the world s worst nuclear power disasters. International Nuclear And Radiological Event Scale About Emergency Preparedness Nrc Gov
  4. isasters such as those that occurred in Chernobyl in d 1986 and Fukushima in 2011 have been largely overlooked from the large-scale landscape perspective because radiation evades our senses and can only be detected using electronic devices. However
  5. Each Nuclear disaster has been given a level on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Click on the header of each nuclear disaster for a detailed look at each event. Process Industry Forum have scrawled the web and created a Top 10 for the worst Nuclear disasters of all time: 10. Tokaimura, Japan 1999 - Level

International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES

Large-scale nuclear meltdowns at civilian nuclear power plants include: the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, United States, in 1979. the Chernobyl disaster at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine, USSR, in 1986. the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster following the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, March 2011 The events are classified on the Scale at seven levels. Each increase in level on the scale indicates a roughly 10-fold increase in severity. The lower levels (1-3) are termed incidents. The upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. The events which have no safety significance are classified as level 0/below scale The INES scale is logarithmic, where each increasing level represents an accident that is ten times more severe than the previous rating. The disasters in Fukushima, Japan in 2011 and Chernobyl,.. The malevolent use of radioactive material as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) by terrorists for dispersing radioactive material in the environment. A large-scale nuclear disaster resulting from a nuclear weapon attack (as had happened at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan) which would lead to mass casualties and destruction of large areas and properties

Types of Nuclear Accidents - INES Scal

Nuclear Bomb Explosion Scale. Photo. Click Images to Large View Photo. The True Scale Of Nuclear Bombs Is Totally Frightening. Click Images to Large View The True Scale Of Nuclear Bombs Is Totally Frightening. Scale Of Nuclear Weapons Now A Days Youtube But the 4000 figure is not far different from estimates made in 1986 by Soviet scientists, according to Dr Mikhail Balonov, a radiation expert with the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, who was a scientist in the former Soviet Union at the time of the accident.As for environmental impact, the reports are also reassuring, for the scientific assessments show that, except for the still closed, highly contaminated 30 kilometer area surrounding the reactor, and some closed lakes and. However, the number of deaths and illnesses that are caused by a nuclear disaster are hard to trace and are as a result often controversial. For this reason, we will be organizing nuclear disasters not by death toll but by their rating on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) The scale can be applied to any event associated with nuclear facilities, as well as the transport, storage and use of radioactive material and radiation sources. Use of INES serves to promote a common understanding of the significance of reported events among governments, the nuclear community, the media and the public

Learn more about the event scale below, and read about some of the worst nuclear disasters in history: The INES scale, image by the International Atomic Energy Agency A total of up to 4000 people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded.As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of. Nuclear and Radiological Emergency/Disaster Scenarios An accident taking place in any nuclear facility of the nuclear fuel cycle including the nuclear reactor, or in a facility using radioactive sources, leading to a large-scale release of radioactivity in the environment And there's a 50:50 chance of a Three Mile Island-scale disaster in the next 10 years, according to the largest statistical analysis of nuclear accidents ever undertaken The catastrophe was compounded by accidents at several nuclear power plants in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami, particularly the meltdown at Fukushima Daiichi, which was later assessed as a level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale - the worst possible rating. [3] The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunam

Nuclear Disaster Scale - Free PDF eBoo

Chernobyl. Chernobyl is considered the world's worst nuclear disaster to date. It occurred on April 26, 1986, when a sudden surge in power during a reactor systems test resulted in an explosion and fire that destroyed Unit 4. Massive amounts of radiation escaped and spread across the western Soviet Union and Europe A failed cooling system at a military nuclear waste reprocessing facility caused a steam explosion that released 70-80 tons of highly radioactive material into the environment. Impact on local population is not fully known The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl a nuclear power plant in Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators b. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture. The accident destroyed the Chernobyl 4 reactor, killing 30. In October of 1957, the UK faced its worst nuclear power accident in history. [1] The accident ranked a high level of 5 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. [3] It all started with a routine annealing process that was carried out to regulate the levels of Wigner energy stored in the graphite moderators Today Japan's nuclear safety agency has raised the nuclear alert level for Japan from four to five - making it two levels lower than the Chernobyl disaster in 1986

Click ahead to see 11 other history-making nuclear disasters. On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale struck Japan, bringing a destructive tsunami along with it Fukushima Daiichi (2011) - Japan. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was caused by the large tsunamis resulting from the Tohoku earthquake in March 2011. It is the second catastrophe to measure Level 7 on the INES. The tsunami waves destroyed most of the safety and power systems, except one diesel generator at Unit 6 Japan nuclear disaster tops scale. By Matt Smith, CNN. At Chernobyl, an explosion and fire at a nuclear power plant resulted in the permanent evacuation of a 30-km radius around the plant. Given the scale of the contamination associated with 60 years of global nuclear activity, and the inherent high financial and environmental costs associated with invasive physical and chemical clean-up strategies, there is an unparalleled interest in new passive in situ bioremediation processes for sites contaminated with nuclear waste

Nuclear Disaster Scale - Images All Disaster Msimages

Many existing plants are ageing, and new nuclear power construction is plagued by substantial delays and huge cost overruns; large-scale nuclear power plants can cost more than $10bn (£7.6bn) 1.5.6 Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism and Sabotage at Nuclear Facilities 5 1.5.7 State-Sponsored Nuclear Terrorism 6 1.5.8 Explosion of Nuclear Weapons 6 1.5.9 Nuclear Medicine 7 1.6 Need for a Comprehensive National Radiation Emergency Management System 7 1.7 Paradigm Shift in Disaster Management in India 8 1.8 Highlights 1957 - Shippingport Atomic Power Station construction is completed at a cost of $72,500,000. The country's first large-scale civilian atomic power plant started generating electricity for commercial use on December 18, 1957. The plant, on the Ohio River twenty-five miles northwest of Pittsburgh, was built in thirty-two months Fukushima accident, disaster that occurred in 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi ('Number One') nuclear power plant on the Pacific coast of northern Japan, which was caused by a severe earthquake and powerful series of tsunami waves and was the second worst nuclear power accident in history

The Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 40 Years Ago

This resulted in INES, the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (IAEA 2009). Events are classified on the scale at seven levels: Levels 4-7 are termed accidents and Levels 1-3 incidents. Events without safety significance are classified as Below Scale/Level 0 The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived radiation risk and other factors at baseline and mid-term mental health after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of 2011 in Japan. A mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2012 and January 2013. Mental health status was assessed using the K6 scale level 7 nuclear accident - the highest level on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), which had previously only been reached by the Chernobyl disaster. Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere The four large explosions, the fire of the spent fuel pond, smoke, evaporation of sea-water used for. Ellenőrizze a (z) International Nuclear Event Scale fordításokat a (z) magyar nyelvre. Nézze meg a International Nuclear Event Scale mondatokban található fordítás példáit, hallgassa meg a kiejtést és tanulja meg a nyelvtant The Windscale Nuclear Disaster. On the morning of Friday, October 11, 1957, workers at the nuclear reactor Windscale Pile 1 near Seascale, Cumberland, England, faced a terrible choice: allow a raging fire to burn itself out while it released dangerously high levels of ionizing radiation into the surrounding countryside; or, attempt to.

Where, Mb: Richter seismic scale, and Y: yield of nuclear explosion. The US Geological Survey has published a reading of 4.2 on the Richter scale at location of 41.294°N and 129.134°E for the DPRK nuclear test. The Complete Test Ban Treaty Organization announced that it registered at 4.0 on the Richter scale. (4 The Fukushima nuclear accident as a part of a triple disaster was unprecedented in its scale and nature. A number of lessons were learned that help Japan and all countries better plan, prepare, respond and recovery from potential nuclear accidents. These include: Evacuation aims to minimize or prevent health risks of radiation exposure During the Chernobyl disaster four hundred times more radioactive material was released than at the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The global average exposure of humans to ionizing radiation is about 2.4 - 3mSv (0.0024-0.003Sv) per year, 80% of which comes from nature

(PDF) Landscape-scale consequences of nuclear disasters

  1. The Chernobyl accident is ranked level 7, the highest on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The severity of its widespread environmental and human cost has only been equaled by 2011's disaster.
  2. The British Bang and Minor Scale non-nuclear explosions were military tests, both designed to simulate nuclear explosions. Both involved several thousand tonnes of explosives, and had a magnitude similar to the Halifax explosion, but no one was hurt
  3. Also, learn about earthquake characterizations, the magnitude scale of earthquakes, as well as the return period. Module 1 : Nuclear Radiation and Safety Module 1: Case Study: Historical Industrial Disasters
  4. Nuclear testing is the cause of abnormal polar motion of the earth. By applying the dates of nuclear tests with a force of more than 150 kilotons, we found it obvious that the position of the pole slid radically at the time of the nuclear explosion. . .
  5. 49. The Chernobyl disaster of 1986 in Ukraine was a case of. Epidemic disaster Toxic gas disaster Nuclear disaster None of the above; What is it called when a large number of people in a community get a disease at the same time
  6. Nuclear Power Plants: Ranking America's Most Vulnerable. The Daily Beast rates the vulnerability of all 65 U.S. nuclear facilities based on safety records, potential disasters and nearby populations
  7. The change was due to high radiation recorded in the air, ocean and tap water. Earlier, the situation was rated at level five.Also on Tuesday morning, a small fire was detected and extinguished at the Fukushima-1 power plant.Japan's nuclear safety agency is still reluctant to compare the dangers to what happened at Chernobyl, saying the radiation leak is smaller.''Even though some amount of.

Top 10 Nuclear Disasters - Process Industry Foru

These are the haunting images that captured the true scale of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. The black and white shots, taken in the weeks following the 1986 Ukraine tragedy, revealed the truth. It is a potential disaster on the scale of Chernobyl. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster occurred on April 26, 1986 and is one of only two level seven nuclear accidents, the other being in. The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was the worst nuclear event since the meltdown at Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union 25 years prior. It started with an earthquake

Japan has observed a moment's silence to mark the 10th anniversary of an earthquake and tsunami that killed more than 18,000 people and triggered a nuclear meltdown in Fukushima On a scale, this explosion is scaled down from a nuclear bomb rather than up from a conventional bomb, said Roland Alford, managing director of Alford Technologies, a British company that specialises in disposal of explosive ordnance. This is probably up there among the biggest non-nuclear explosions of all time The 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi and the 1986 incident at Chernobyl were both rated 7 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale, but the accidents were starkly different in their cause, the governments' response and health effects Rice paddies function as wetlands; therefore, abandoned paddy fields cause a loss of habitats for aquatic species, such as amphibians. Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, paddy fields around the plant were abandoned and rapidly dried. To identify the impact of large-scale abandonment of paddy fields on the habitats of frogs, we investigated changes in. After the inquiry, he and his colleagues finally got their wish. Windscale: Britain's biggest nuclear disaster was broadcast on Monday, 8 October, 2007, at 2100 BST on BBC Two. BBC Radio 4 broadcast a two-part drama about Windscale on Monday and Tuesday, 8 and 9 October, at 14:15 BST. E-mail this to a friend

Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents - Wikipedi

  1. It was Britain's worst nuclear disaster and rated at level five on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale. The highest level is seven which was given to Chernobyl in the Ukraine and Fukushima in Japan. I've not spoken about the events publicly, except with friends and family, in all my 64 years since the accident, said.
  2. The situation one year after Japan 2011 earthquake and Tsunami is overviewed. The reason of Japanese plans failure was the scale of tsunami, having higher waves than what was assumed, especially in the design of the Nuclear Power Plant. Japanese authorities considered economic benefits more than safety and moral factors exacerbate the situation
  3. Cardano Disaster Recovery Plan, IOHK, May/2021. The version of the Ouroboros protocol used in the current implementation of Cardano operates as expected (i.e., provides network-wide consistency and liveness) as long as two disaster events do not occur
  4. The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was established by the INES (the International Atomic Energy Agency) and the OECD/NEA (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency), and in 1992, all countries were recommended to formally adopt it.. Incidents and accidents at nuclear facilities are divided into seven categories according to their.
  5. These solutions could help after other disasters, too. Denkenberger said employees in the agriculture and government sectors are more concerned about disasters like hurricanes than a full-scale nuclear winter. If you have a localised disaster, generally the cheapest thing to do is just to ship grain in, he said
Japan Plans Controlled Nuclear Meltdown in Hope of

Nuclear weapons cause severe damage to the climate and environment on a scale incomparable to any other weapon. Research by the International Red Cross shows the effect of a 'limited' nuclear war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized bombs (i.e. less than half a per cent of the world's stockpile) Disaster Amount 10 tons of melted radioactive fuel . International Nuclear Event Scale 5 - Accident with wider consequences . Articles (2) Read Up: Great Articles On Windscale Fire Nuclear Disaster. History; Windscale Fire Disaster: A Brief History. History; Footer Menu Mayak or Kyshtym nuclear complex (Soviet Union): 29 September 1957. A fault in the cooling system at the nuclear complex, near Chelyabinsk, results in a chemical explosion and the release of an. Editor's note: Founded in 1945 by Albert Einstein and University of Chicago scientists who helped develop the first atomic weapons in the Manhattan Project, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists created the Doomsday Clock two years later, using the imagery of apocalypse (midnight) and the contemporary idiom of nuclear explosion (countdown to zero) to convey threats to humanity and the planet

Nuclear disaster | Nuclear accidents | Worst nuclear disasters

Radioactive material has been detected in various places. Earthquake and tsunami damage to the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Source. It is thought that the cost of the earthquake and tsunami could be over $300 billion — the world's most expensive natural disaster on record The industrial complex of Mayak, in Russia's north-east, has had a nuclear plant for decades, and in 1957 was the site of one of the world's worst nuclear accidents. Up to 100 tons of radioactive waste were released by an explosion, contaminating a massive area. The explosion was kept under wraps until the 1980s Nuclear detonations release large amounts of neutron and gamma radiation. Relative to other effects, initial radiation is an important cause of casualties only for low-yield explosions (less than 10 kilotons). Fallout. When a nuclear detonation occurs close to the ground surface, soil mixes with the highly radioactive fission products from the. Radiatidon said: Back in 1983 a fault beneath Mt. Borah shifted. The resulting tremor shook the Richter scale for a 7.0 - 7.3 (sources vary). Just 50 miles from the epicenter at Mt. Borah, is located a hotbed of radioactive goodness, the INEEL which encompasses 571,000 acres of sagebrush joy. Now that's something you don't think about Large-Scale Attack Simulator (USA) What would happen to the United States during a nuclear war? Using unclassified documents on nuclear targeting and open data on the physics of modern weapons and fallout patterns, this simulation models what would happen if approximately 1,100 warheads (~7% of the world's arsenal) hit the United States

Fukushima: The story of a nuclear disaster. New York: Union of Concerned Scientists, The New Press. Google Scholar Madany, I.M., A. Jaffar, and E.S. AI-Shirbini. 1998. Variations in the concentrations of aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in Bahraini coastal waters during the period October 1993 to December 1995 Japan's nuclear agency has upgraded the severity level of a radioactive water leak at the Fukushima plant from one to three on an international scale. Highly radioactive water was found to be.

An Admission. Until Tuesday, Japan had rated the Fukushima disaster as a 5 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A rating of 7 denotes a major accident with far-reaching effects for health and. Large-scale Disasters LESSONS LEARNED « Large-scale Disasters LESSONS LEARNED Large-scale Disasters LESSONS LEARNED The September 11th terrorist attacks, the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Hurricane Andrew and the Kobe earthquake are all recent examples of large-scale disasters that have taken a massive toll in human lives, wealth and property.

International Nuclear Event Scale - Nuclear Heritag

An underground burst causes a surge similar to an earthquake in its effect. With respect to energy, a 20-kiloton nuclear explosion can be compared to an earthquake measuring five points on the Richter scale. A nuclear explosion of a 20-megaton hydrogen bomb corresponds to an earthquake measuring seven points on the Richter scale M 6.3 Nuclear Explosion - 21 km ENE of S?ngjibaegam, North Korea. 2017-09-03 03:30:01 (UTC) 41.332°N 129.030°E; 0.0 km depth; Possible explosion, located near the site where North Korea has detonated nuclear explosions in the past. If this event was an explosion, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center cannot determine its type. On March 11th 2011, a massive tidal wave caused by an earthquake hit the east coast of Japan. In its wake the world witnessed a nuclear disaster on a scale not seen since the reactor accident in. The accidents left a legacy of large-scale radioactive contamination of the environment, and that radioactivity will persist for years to come, despite the best cleanup efforts that money can buy

Nuclear Scale: Or 'only a Godzilla can save us' 14Sep14. The massiveness of the nuclear is 'lightened' only by a catastrophe. The Earth is geophilosophically and geopolitically frustrating because it's an ongoing nuclear disaster (a great heat engine as James Hutton understood it) but one that is metastable while proving itself the. Chernobyl disaster, accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union, the worst disaster in the history of nuclear power generation.The Chernobyl power station was situated at the settlement of Pryp'yat, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the city of Chernobyl (Ukrainian: Chornobyl) and 65 miles (104 km) north of Kyiv, Ukraine Chernobyl is widely acknowledged to be the worst nuclear disaster in history, but a few scientists have argued that Fukushima was more destructive. (The IAEA scale looks at accidents at. In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Germany announced plans to phase out nuclear power generation: over the period from 2011 to 2017 it shut down 10 of its 17 nuclear facilities, and plans to close the remaining reactors in 2022. 20. Because nuclear is safer than its main alternatives this policy decision cost lives The Windscale Fire. The Windscale nuclear facility was the location of the worst nuclear disaster in the United Kingdom to date. A regular heating accident initiated a meltdown, setting ablaze 10 tons of nuclear material in the reactor and releasing radioactive iodine into the atmosphere. The aftermath caused a ban on milk distribution within a.

Nuclear accidents worldwide - INES scale Statist

Some scientists say Fukushima is worse than the 1986 Chernobyl accident, with which it shares a maximum level-7 rating on the sliding scale of nuclear disasters When Scali met Feklisov: The lunch that saved the world from nuclear disaster. History June 21 2018 Maria Grigoryan Oleg Yegorov John Scali from ABC TV, a man who, along with a Soviet resident.

Nuclear Disaster GSDM

20 Haunting Images by Russian Photographer Showing the True Scale of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster. April 26, 2020 Vintage Everyday 1980s, accident & disaster, event & history, photography, Pripyat, Ukraine, wtf explosion of a high activity waste tank Kyshtym, Russian Federation, 1957 Level 7 (major accident): • Signifi cant release of the radioactive material to the environment resulting in widespread health and The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale But governance shortcomings may be imperiling the response. Last Friday, the country was hit by a devastating mega-earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster. It will take weeks to fully assess the.

5 Reasons Why the Chernobyl Disaster Got So Out of Control

There are many differences between the explosion of American atomic bomb and the accidents at nuclear power plants. First, the mass of two bombs dropped on Japanese cities is much less than the mass of fuel used at nuclear power plants. For example, Kid - namely the so-called deadly weapon on board a bomber - contained about 64 kg of. 09/03/2020 / Franz Walker. Pentagon warns: China will double the size of its nuclear arsenal in the next decade. 07/29/2020 / Ethan Huff. Military could benefit from portable, truck-sized nuclear reactors. 05/13/2020 / Franz Walker. Free of human interference, wildlife thrives in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. 02/25/2020 / Zoey Sky Japan nuclear plant: how Fukushima crisis rates on nuclear disaster scale. The nuclear crisis at Japan's Fukushima plant is already considered the second worst nuclear accident in history. Scale of Fukushima disaster 'unexpected', says Japan nuclear agency Japan's nuclear experts admitted today that the Fukushima reactor disaster was worse than anything they ever imagined could have.

Prior to the Fukushima disaster, ~30% of Japan's electricity came from nuclear power plants. There's an obvious line on the chart that plunges to zero, and that's nuclear generation The nuclear meltdown at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine was widely regarded as the single worst nuclear power disaster the world had ever seen, that is until the triple meltdowns at Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Both disasters earned a level seven ranking on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale

Windscale fire - Wikipedia10 Worst Historic Nuclear Disasters & Accidents From The

The 444 nuclear power plants currently in existence provide about 11% of the world's energy (11). Studies show that in order to meet current and future energy needs, the nuclear sector would have to scale up to around 14,500 plants As part of a broader NLM reorganization, the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) website was discontinued on June 21, 2021. Most of NLM's disaster health information services remain available due to integration into other NLM products and services or are offered by external websites. The content of select resources from. The Japanese government on Tuesday raised the rating of the crisis at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant to a level 7. That's the highest possible level on the international scale used to evaluate. Web Based Disaster Information Sites. You already know that there are hundreds, if not thousands of disaster scenarios that can wreak havoc at the local level and on larger scales. Floods, earthquakes, biological threats, or nuclear hazards - one site can give you a bird's eye view of everything going on in the world The Windscale fire was a fire in Britain's first nuclear reactor at Windscale (now Sellafield) on 10 October 1957. The fire spread radioactive fallout over hundreds of miles. Some of the most dangerous contamination was kept secret, and its effects only came to light years later. At the back of the reactor, ruptured fuel cartridges containing uranium are still jammed in the fire damaged core. If there is another disaster on the scale of Chernobyl, do you think governments should stop their nuclear energy programmes? (7) Should only democratic countries be allowed to have nuclear energy programmes? (8) What are the best alternatives to nuclear energy? (9) If the money was good, would you work at a nuclear power plant? (10